The court emphasized the necessity to avoid satellite litigation and in specific the necessity to avoid…

The court emphasized the necessity to avoid satellite litigation and in specific the necessity to avoid…

The court emphasized the necessity to avoid litigation that is satellite in specific the necessity to avoid, if possible, the re-calling of witnesses to offer proof about issues the subject of past beliefs. The events were reminded of this need certainly to look for contract.

When there is a dispute about past convictions that cannot be remedied by agreed facts, prosecutors should offer careful consideration to appropriate witness care that will add organizing because of the authorities a witness care prepare with consideration being fond of unique measures applications. It might additionally be appropriate to possess respect to your hearsay conditions associated with Chapter 2 of Part 11 regarding the Criminal Justice Act 2003.

Area 108 of this Act limits the admissibility of proof previous convictions as bad character proof in which the accused is faced with offences purported to have already been committed by them whenever aged 21 years or higher and also the conviction that is previous convictions had been for offences committed ahead of the chronilogical age of 14 to instances when

  1. Both associated with the offences are triable only on indictment, and
  2. The court is pleased that the passions of justice need the data become admissible.

A care can perform appearing character that is bad. It may be the main topic of dispute into the way that is same a conviction are disputed. In the case a care is disputed by the accused, the court will work out considerable care in admitting the care as proof of bad character specially in which the care had been accepted within the lack of legal services. A conviction is somewhat various to a care and also the court will very carefully start thinking about its capabilities of exclusion under section 101(3) – R v Olu 2010 EWCA Crim 2975.

A Penalty Notice will not include an admission of shame and will not impact the character that is good of one whom takes one – see R v Gore and Maher 2009 EWCA Crim 1424. They’ve been therefore inadmissible as proof of bad character (R v Hamer 2010 EWCA Crim 2053).

Prosecutors should offer really consideration to looking for admission of beliefs which can be invested beneath the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974. Part 7(2)(a) for the 1974 Act expressly excludes criminal proceedings through the procedure associated with the rule that is general an individual whoever beliefs are invested is usually to be addressed as an individual of good character. Nevertheless, some protection is afforded to a defendant by Criminal Practice Direction V, 21A. 3 which supplies that no-one should refer in available court up to a invested conviction minus the authority associated with judge which authority should not be provided with unless the passions of justice therefore require. Correctly, instances when a credit card applicatoin is created by the prosecution to adduce character that is bad in terms of an invested conviction is going to be exemplary.

Bad Character of Non-Defendants

The admissibility of bad character proof of non-defendants is governed by section 100 regarding the Act. This gives that such proof of an individual except that the accused is admissible if and just if –

  1. It’s important explanatory evidence,
  2. It’s significant probative value in regards to a matter which –
    • Is just a matter in problem into the proceedings, and
    • Is of substantial importance within the context regarding the full situation all together, or
  3. All events to your procedures consent to the data being admissible.

Proof is essential explanatory evidence if, without one, the court or jury would believe it is impossible or hard correctly to comprehend other proof in the event and its own value for understanding the instance in general is significant (section 100(2)). This subsection mirrors the provision in section 101(1)(c) plus it ended up being meant that the exact same test would be of application to defendants and non-defendants alike.

Part 100(3) associated with Act directs the court, whenever evaluating the probative worth of the data for the purposes of section 100(1 b that is)( to possess reference to

  1. The number and nature of occasions, or other activities, to that your evidence applies;
  2. Whenever those activities or things are purported to have existed or happened;
  3. Where –
    • The data is proof of a person’s misconduct, and
    • It’s advocated that evidence has probative value by explanation of similarity between that misconduct as well as other misconduct that is alleged

The type and level regarding the similarities and dissimilarities between each one of the so-called cases of misconduct;

  1. Where –
    • The data is proof of a person’s misconduct,
    • It is strongly recommended that see your face can also be in charge of the misconduct charged, and
    • The identification of the individual accountable for the misconduct charged is disputed

The level to that your proof shows or tends to demonstrate that the person that is same accountable every time.

Proof of a non-defendant’s character that is bad be adduced with no leave for the court unless the events agree. Nonetheless, when a judge has determined that the requirements for admissibility are met, there’s absolutely no discretion that is exclusionary for the workout for the instance management abilities regulating, for instance, way and amount of cross assessment (R v Brewster and Cromwell 2010 EWCA Crim 1194). Prosecutors should just accept the admission of bad character whenever one or each of one other gateways are pleased or it really is when you look at the passions of justice to take action.

This area relates to both witnesses and people perhaps not called to offer proof except in which the problem is one of credibility due to the fact credibility of a non-witness will never ever be a matter in problem. The part additionally covers those people who are deceased.

The creditworthiness of a witness is really a “matter in problem into the procedures” for the purposes of section 100(1)(b) (see R v S (Andrew) 2006 EWCA Crim 1303) nevertheless, such bad character proof will simply be admissible when it is “of significant importance when you look at the context associated with the situation as a whole”.

A application that is successful the defence may possibly provide the foundation for a software when it comes to admission of defendant bad character under section 101(1)(g) regarding the Act ( an assault on another person’s character) at the mercy of the court’s discernment to exclude under section 101(3).

The defence seek to cross examine the complainant as to sexual behaviour or to adduce evidence on that matter, if the matter falls within the definition of bad character evidence, the judge will have to be satisfied as to both the requirements of section 100 and section 41 in cases where cross examination is restricted by statute, such as section 41 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 where, upon the trial of a sexual offence.


The process when it comes to admissibility of bad character proof is governed by role 20 regarding the Criminal Procedure Rules 2015. The significance of complying with all the guidelines governing procedure was stressed in R v Bovell; R v Dowds 2005 EWCA Crim 1091 and subsequent situations have actually stressed the necessity to offer information pertaining to beliefs as well as other proof of bad character in good time.

A celebration desperate to adduce proof a defendant’s bad character must serve notice relative to R21.4 associated with the CPR regarding the court officer and every other celebration:

  1. 28 times following the defendant pleads not liable into the magistrates’ court, or
  2. 2 weeks following the defendant pleads not liable within the Crown Court.

An event who objects to your admission regarding the character that is bad must connect with the court to look for the objection and provide the program less than 2 weeks after solution associated with the notice.

Notice must certanly be written by a defendant, either orally or in composing, of a intention to adduce proof of his or her own bad character since quickly as fairly practicable any in every occasion ahead of the proof is introduced (R21.8).

A court must offer grounds for any choice to either allow or refuse the applying (R21.5). This requirement is imposed by area 110 regarding the Act.

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The court has energy, under R21.6 to alter certain requirements under this component associated with CPR which includes an electrical to dispense with a necessity for notice. Any celebration searching for an extension must use when serving the application form and give an explanation for wait.


These can be accessed into the Forms area of the Criminal Procedure Rules.

The Code for Crown Prosecutors

The Code for Crown Prosecutors is just a general public document, granted by the Director of Public Prosecutions that sets out of the general concepts Crown Prosecutors should follow if they make choices on instances.

Prosecution guidance

This guidance assists our prosecutors when they’re making decisions about instances. It really is frequently updated to mirror alterations in legislation and training.

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